英语发音规则(整理版):元音字母及其组合

整理了辅音的发音规则(见博文《英语发音规则(整理版):辅音字母及其组合》),本文接着整理元音字母及其组合的发音规则,元音字母读音跟重/非重读关系很大,建议先阅读博文《英语中开/闭音节和重/非重读》。

1. 基本发音规则

1.1 元音字母在重读音节

通常情况下,元音字母在重读开音节发字母的音,即a(/eɪ/),e(/iː/),i(/aɪ/),o(/əʊ/),u(/ju:/).元音字母在重读开/闭音节读音如下[1]

vowel pronunciation
图1 元音字母在重读音节的发音

注:在开音节中,j/l/r/s+u,u发/u:/,如Jane, blue, ruler, super.

1.2 元音字母在非重读音节

A a

/ə/, 如China, another, woman, breakfast.
/ɪ/,如orange, village, cabbage(/ˈkæbɪdʒ/).

E e

/ə/, 如hundred, student, open, weekend, children.
/ɪ/,如chicken, pocket, begin.

I i

/ə/, 如holiday, beautiful, family.
/aɪ/, 如exercise, satellite.

O o

/ə/, 如second, tonight, somebody(/’sʌmbədi/), welcome.
/əʊ/, 如also, zero, photo.

U u

/ə/, 如autumn(/’ɔːtəm/), difficult.
/jʊ/, 如popular, January.

可见,元音字母aeiou在非重读音节都有一读音/ə/。而名词、形容词、副词后缀通常不会是重读音节,后缀-ous,-ent,-ant中的元音字母皆读/ə/,详情见1.3。

1.3 -ant, -ent, -ous后缀[7]

-ous(/əs/),-ent(/ənt/),-ant(/ənt/)后缀中的元音字母皆读/ə/。后缀-ous,-ent,-ant,均可以直接加在动词或名词后面构成形容词,一般来说,动词加-ous,-ent,-ant后缀所构成的形容词表示主动意义。后缀-ant,-ent也表示名词后缀,表示人或构件,如applicant(申请人),assistant(助手),occupant(居住者,占有人),component(部件,成分),defendant(被告), dependant(依赖他人者).

(1)-ant

abundant(/ə’bʌndənt/), attendant, complaisant(/彬彬有礼的/), constant, distant, elegant, extravagant(/ɪk’strævəgənt/, 奢侈的), exuberant(/ɪg’z(j)uːb(ə)r(ə)nt/, 繁茂的), gallant(英勇的), ignorant(无知的), important, incessant(连续的), indignant(愤愤不平的), instant, pleasant, reluctant(不情愿的), repugnant(讨厌的), servant, significant, triumphant(/traɪ’ʌmfənt/, 成功的), vacant(空虚的), warrant.

(2)-ent

-ment名词后缀,表示行为,状态,过程,手段及其结果

treatment, movement, judgment, punishment, argument, abatement(/ə’beɪtm(ə)nt/, 减少), accomplishment, acknowledgment, advancement, agreement, amazement, amusement, retirement, sentiment, statement, treatment, development, , , apartment, argument, arrangement, astonishment, atonement, attachment, augment, commencement, compliment, confinement, contentment, entertainment, disagreement, disappointment, discernment, elopement, embarrassment, employment, encouragement, engagement, enjoyment. 还有以-ment结尾,但ment不属于名词后缀,如torment(/’tɔrmɛnt/, 折磨), lament(/lə’mɛnt/, 哀悼).

-ent后缀

abhorrent, accent, accident, apparent, benevolent, cogent, confident, consent, consequent(/’kɑnsəkwənt/), consistent, convenient, decent, deficient, dependent, descent, impatient, sufficient, talent, urgent, violent, evident, impertinent. 还有以-ent结尾,但ent不属于后缀,如bent(/bɛnt/, 弯曲的), event(/ɪ’vɛnt/), went(/wɛnt/).

(3)-ous后缀

见本文3.4节ou.

2. 两个相同的元音字母相邻

两个相同的元音字母,所我所知,不存在含有aa,ii,uu的词,所以只需了解ee和oo了。

2.1 ee,eer

ee,只发/iː/,并且在双音节中,重音均在ee的音节上,如tree, street, been, greedy, esteem, cheerful, screen, succeed.
eer,只发/ɪə,ɪr/,并且以-eer结尾的单词,重音在词尾,如beer, cheer, deer, peer, sneer, career, pioneer, volunteer.

2.2 oo,oor

(1)oo

大部分是发长音/uː/,记住发短音/ʊ/的词,其他的几乎都是发长音/uː/了。

/ʊ/

字母组合ook,如book, cook, look, shook, took.
字母组合ood,如wood, falsehood, good, stood. 但有两个很特殊,blood(/blʌd/), flood(/flʌd/).
其他,wool, foot.

/uː/

除了上述情况外,几乎都发长音/uː/,如fool, school; shoot, root; too, zoo; roof, proof; boom, room; noon, moon; troop, loop; choose, loose; tooth, smooth; groove.

(2)oor

oor发/ɔː/,/ɔr=ɔɚ/,如door, floor. 但有例外,如poor(/pʊr/), moor(荒野,停泊).

3. 两个不同的元音字母相邻

3.1 元音字母+i/y

元音字母+i/y,据我所知,不含有ii/iy的词,只找到一个含uy的词,即buy(/baɪ/).

(1)oi/oy只发/ɔɪ/

oi,如appoint, avoid, coin, boisterous, choice, coincide, devoid, join, noise, point, voice, void, (doing, going例外).
oy,如boy, destroy, employ, enjoy, joy, overjoy, unalloy(/,ʌnə’lɔɪd/, 纯粹的).

(2)ai/ay只发/ei/

ai,如fraid, avail, wait, chaise, claim, curtail, daily, detail, vain, brain.
ay,如way, betray, day, nay, pray, way, stay, play, gay, yesterday(都以ay结尾).

注:air,发/ɛr=ɛɚ/,如air, hair, chair, pair, repair, stair, fair, affair.

(3)ei/ey

ei/ey都有发/eɪ/,ei发/iː/, ey发/ɪ/(理解成含ey的词,大多以-ey为结尾)。eir,发/ɛr=ɛɚ/,如their(/ðɛr/), heir(/ɛr/,[法]继承人).

/eɪ/

ei, 如eight, neighbour, rein, weight, deign(/deɪn/,屈尊,赐予). 但有一个很特殊height(/haɪt/).
ey,如obey, prey, survey, they, convey. 但有一个很特殊eye(/aɪ/).

/iː/, /ɪ/

ei发/iː/,如conceit, conceive, deceitful, deceive, perceive, receipt, receive, seize, either(/’aɪðə; ‘iː-/), forfeit(/’fɔːfɪt/,/’fɔrfət/,罚金), heinous(/’heɪnəs; ‘hiːnəs/,可憎的), leisure(/’leʒə/,/’liʒɚ/).
ey发/ɪ/,如attorney, hackney, journey, money, curtsey(/’kə:tsi/,屈膝礼). 但eye(/aɪ/), beyond(/bɪ’jɒnd/)例外。

(4)ui,uy

含uy的单词,我只找到一个,buy(/baɪ/)。含ui的词,有挺多是含qui,qu发/kw/,i的发音大体上可以根据重读开音节发/aɪ/,重读闭音节/ɪ/,非重读音节发/ə/来记忆。其他的,挺没规则的,好在不多。

①qui

/aɪ/重读开音节

acquire(/ə’kwaɪr/), require, inquire, quiet, quite.

/ɪ/重读闭音节

quick(/kwɪk/), quit, acquit(/ə’kwɪt, equivalent(/ɪ’kwɪvələnt/), obsequious(/əb’sikwɪəs/,谄媚的). 有些发重读音节也发/ɪ/,如 relinquish(/rɪ’lɪŋkwɪʃ/,放弃), tranquilly(/’træŋkwili/,平静的), acquisition(/,ækwɪ’zɪʃən/).

/ə/ 非重读音节

equipage(/’ɛkwəpɪdʒ/,装备), requisite(/’rɛkwəzɪt/,必须的), tranquil(/ˈtræŋkwəl/, 安静的), iniquitous(/ɪ’nɪkwətəs/, 邪恶的).

②j/l/r/s+ui

/juːɪ/,如fluid(/’fluːɪd/,流动的), suicide(/’s(j)uːɪsaɪd/), pursuit(/pə’sjuːt/, 追求), tuition(/tjuː’ɪʃ(ə)n/).
/uː/,如juice(/dʒuːs/), fruit(/fruːt/), ruin(/’ruːɪn/,毁灭), suit(/suːt/).

③其他发音

/aɪ/,如guide, disguise(/dɪs’ɡaɪz/,掩饰).
/wɪ/,如anguish(/’æŋɡwɪʃ/,痛苦), distinguish, extinguish(/ɪk’stɪŋɡwɪʃ/,熄灭), sanguine(/’sæŋgwɪn/,乐观的).
/ɪ/,如guilty(/’ɡɪlti/,内疚的), build(/bɪld/).
其他,如ingenuity(/,ɪndʒɪ’njuːɪtɪ/,/,ɪndʒə’nuəti/,心灵手巧), genuine(/’dʒɛnjʊɪn/,真实的),

3.2 au

/ɔː/

au几乎发/ɔː/,如audience, aught, augment, authorise, cause, caught, caution, incautiously, daughter, default, exhaust, fault, gaudy, haughty, haunt, laudable, pause, saucy, taught, because(/bɪ’kɔz/), laurel(/’lɔrəl/,授予荣誉).

特殊发音

/ɑː/,如aunt(/ɑːnt/), laugh(/lɑːf/,/læf/), draught(/drɑːft/).
eau,这类词极少,如beauty(/’bjuːtɪ/), beaux(/boz/).

3.3 oa

/əʊ/

oa几乎发/əʊ/,如approach, boast, coach, coachman, coat, coats, coax, encroach, oak, petticoat, reproach, road, roast, throat.

/ɔː/

oa极少数发/ɔː/,如abroad, board, sideboard, coarseness(/’kɔrsnɪs/,粗糙). oar发/ɔr/.

3.3 ea

ear发/ɪr=ɪɚ/,/ɛr=ɛɚ/,/ɝ/,详情见博文《英语发音规则(整理版):辅音字母及其组合》中的r音节。eau,这类词并不多。据我所知,不存在含有ea[aeioy]的词。

(1)eau

以-eau结尾的词,发/əʊ/,如bureau(/’bjʊrəʊ/, 局),plateau(/plæ’təʊ/,高原),portmanteau(/pɔːt’mæntəʊ/, 旅行皮箱), beau(/bo/, 花花公子,美的).
其他发/juː/,如beauty(/’bjuːtɪ/), beautiful, beauteous(/’bjuːtɪəs/).

(2)ea

/iː/

约半数发这个音[6]如sea, meat, agree, beat, beach, teacher, season, please. 值得注意的是,ee只发/iː/,存在多组读音一样,含义不同的词,如meet/meat,beet/beat, zee/zeal. 但有不少例外,见下面。

/ɛ/

如weather, heavy, meant, sweater, breath, meadow,  breast, breakfast. 值得注意的是,ee(/iː/)与ea对应的词,读音不同,如sweet/sweat,  deed/dead, three/threat, leech/leather.

/ei/

如break, great.

/ɪə/

如idea(/aɪ’diə/),real, theatre, really(/ˈriəˌli, ˈrili/), realize(/’riːəlaɪz, ‘rɪrlaɪz/).

3.4 ou

our发音比较复杂,可发/aʊə=aʊɚ/,/ɔr=ɔɚ/,/ɝ/,详情见博文《英语发音规则(整理版):辅音字母及其组合》。

(1)形容词后缀-ous(名词或动词后加ous,表示”有…的”),都发/əs/.

①-ious

/ʃəs/, cautious(/’kɔːʃəs/), licentious, expeditious, vexatious; spacious(/’speɪʃəs/,宽敞的), conscious(/’kɒnʃəs/), delicious, malicious, gracious, ungracious, officious, vicious, suspicious; anxious(/’æŋkʃəs/).
/ɪəs/, ceremonious(/serɪ’məʊnɪəs/), ingenious; curious(/’kjʊrɪəs/), serious, various, industrious, injurious, illustrious(/ɪ’lʌstrɪəs/,著名的); odious(/’əʊdɪəs/,讨厌的), tedious, fastidious; irreligious(/,ɪrɪ’lɪdʒəs/,无宗教的), prodigious; previous, obsequious(/əb’sikwɪəs/,谄媚的), supercilious(/,supɚ’sɪlɪəs/,傲慢的).

②-uous

continuous(/kən’tɪnjʊəs/, 连续的), assiduous(/ə’sɪdjʊəs/, 刻苦的), strenuous(/’strɛnjuəs/, 紧张的).

③-eous

courageous(/kə’reɪdʒəs/), advantageous(/ædvən’teɪdʒəs/), beauteous(/’bjuːtɪəs/).

④其他

nervous, numerous, pompous, prosperous, querulous(/’kwɛrələs/, 易怒的), rapturous, ridiculous, scandalous, ungenerous, vigorous, barbarous(/’bɑrbərəs/, 野蛮的), boisterous(/’bɔɪstərəs/, 喧闹的), clamorous(/’klæmərəs/, 吵闹的), dangerous, desirous(/dɪ’zaɪərəs/, 渴望的), frivolous(/’frɪvələs/, 无聊的), generous(/’dʒɛnərəs/), grievous(/’ɡrivəs/, 痛苦的), heinous(/’henəs/), incredulous(/ɪn’krɛdʒələs/, 怀疑的), infamous(/’ɪnfəməs/), iniquitous(/ɪ’nɪkwətəs/, 邪恶的), jealous(/’dʒɛləs/, 嫉妒的), miraculous(/mɪ’rækjələs/, 不可思议的), monotonous(/mə’nɑtənəs/, 单调的).

(2)ough

ought,ou发/ɔː/,且gh不发音,如bought(/bɔːt/, buy), brought(/brɔːt/, bring), sought(seek), thought(think), ought.
少数含ough的词,ou发/ɒ/,/ʌ/,/əʊ/,/uː/,如cough(kɒf); enough(/ɪ’nʌf/), rough; though(/ðəʊ/), thorough(/’θɜro/, 彻底的), through(/θruː/).

(3)其他ou发音

①/aʊ/

多数情况下发/aʊ/,如arouse(/ə’raʊz/), house, abound, about, aloud, around, account, amount, announce(/ə’naʊns/), boundary(/’baʊndri/), bounty(慷慨), county, countenance, encounter, counteract, counterbalance, doubt, foul(犯规的), found, foundation, ground, groundwork, hereabouts, mount, mouth, out, outdo(超过), outlived, outrun, outstrip, outstripped, pound, pronounce, proud, resound(/rɪ’zaʊnd/, 回响), round, route, sound, surmount(克服), surround, trout, vouch(担保), without(/wɪ’θaʊt/).

②/ʌ/

young(/jʌŋ/), country(/’kʌntri/), couple(/’kʌpl/), double(/’dʌbl/), touch(/tʌtʃ/), trouble(/’trʌbl/), enough(/ɪ’nʌf/), rough, trouble, cousin(/’kʌzn/).

③/uː/

you(/juː/), youth(/juːθ/),group, soup(/suːp/), wound(/wuːnd/).

④/ʊ/

情态动词,could(/kʊd/), should(/ʃʊd/), would(/wʊd/).

⑤/əʊ/

poultry(/’pəʊltrɪ/, 家禽), soul(/səʊl/).

3.5 eu

含eu的词很少,主要发/juː/,如neutral(/’njuːtr(ə)l/), deuce(/djuːs/,平局), feudal(/’fjuːd(ə)l/,封建的), adieu(/ə’djuː/,告别), lieu(/ljuː; luː/,替代,场所). 但也有例外,如euro(/’jʊro/), manoeuvre(/mə’nuːvə/,调动), grandeur(/’ɡrændʒɚ/,壮丽,庄严).

3.6 ui

含ui的词,很大一部分是qui,qui的qu发/kw/,其发音规则见3.1。除此之外,其他发音如下:

/ɪ/,如distinguish(/dɪ’stɪŋgwɪʃ/), anguish, extinguish; built(/bɪld/), build, guilt, sanguine(/’sæŋgwɪn/).
/aɪ/, 如disguise(/dɪs’gaɪz/), guide(/gaɪd/).
其他,pursuit(/pə’sjuːt/), suit(/suːt/), fruit, ruin(/’ruːɪn/), genuine(/’dʒenjʊɪn/).

注:l/r/j+u的词,u发/uː/(如suit, fruit, juice)或/uːɪ/(如fluid, ruin). 但有例外,如pursuit(/pə’sjuːt/), genuine(/’dʒenjʊɪn/), suite(/swiːt/, 家具,套房).

4. 元音各个字母读音

4.1 A a

(1)/eɪ/

重读开音节

如late, private, grade, bake, grape, nation, station, page, plane, radio, wake, paper. 但have(/hæv/)例外。

含ange的词

如change, danger, strange, angel, arrange, range, arrange. 但anger(/’æŋgə/)例外。

含ate的词

含ate的词几乎只发/eɪ/,ate也是名词/动词后缀。
名词后缀-ate,表示“具有…职责的人”,如candidate, graduate.
动词后缀-ate,表示“成为…,处理,作用”, 如operate, indicate, hesitate, celebrate, calculate. 但有例外,如separate(/’sɛprət/).
其他,如late, hate, delicate, relate. 但也有例外,如climate(/’klaɪmət/).

(2)/æ/

重读闭音节,如active, hand, bank, fan, glad, flag.

(3)/ə/

非重读音节,如China, another, woman, breakfast, accept, about, formative, machine, cinema.
-ant名词/形容词后缀,如abundant(/ə’bʌndənt/), attendant, complaisant(/彬彬有礼的/), constant, distant.

(4)/ɑː/

如fast, last, glass, class, past. 英音/ɑ:/与美音/ɑ/的对应只是个形式上的对应,不是应用上的对应,美语中所有该发/ɑ:/音的全都改发成了/æ/或/ɑr/了。除了father(‘fɑðɚ).

a+f/ph/n/sk/sh/ss/st/th,重读音节发/ɑː/

按照美音,这些字母组合发音可以视为a在重读闭音节的发音/æ/。

af,如after(/’ɑːftə/), afterward, hereafter, staff. 但afraid(/ə’fred/), affair(/ə’fɛr/)按a在非重读音节的读音/ə/,safe(/sef/)则是按a在重读开音节读音/e/.
aph,ph发/f/,如graph, aphorism(/’æfərɪzəm/,格言).
ask,如ask, flask(长颈瓶).
ash,sh发/ʃ/,如ash, bash, fashion. 但ashamed(/ə’ʃemd/)a在非重读音节的读音/ə/.
ass,如ass, glass, class, surpass(/sə’pæs/). 但compass(‘kʌmpəs), assist按a在非重读音节的读音/ə/.
ast,如fast, haste, master, nasty, past. 但waste(/west/), taste按a在重读开音节读音/e/.
ath,如gather, path, rather. 但sympathy(/’sɪmpəθi/)按a在非重读音节的读音/ə/.
alm, 如calm, palm(手掌), balm(香油).
alf, 如half, calf(小牛).
a[mn]+辅音,如chance, advance, France, dance. 但有例外,如grand(/grænd/), abundant(/ə’bʌndənt/).

(5)/ɒ/

[w]+a,发/ɒ/,如want, what, watch, wash, wander, quality, water(/’wɔːtə/). 但有例外,如acquaint(/ə’kwent/), wave(/weɪv/), wake(/weɪk/), whale(/weɪl/).
其他,如wash(/wɒʃ/), what, watch, want.

(6)/ɔː/

al,如chalk(/tʃɔːk/), talk, always(/’ɔːlweɪz/), tall, walk. 但有例外,如shall(/ʃæl;ʃ(ə)l/), valley(/’vælɪ/), shallow(/’vælɪ/, 浅的), wallet(/’wɒlɪt/), rival(/’raɪvl/, 对手).

4.2 E e

(1)/iː/

重读开音节,如she, secret, these, Chinese(/,tʃai’ni:z/), extreme(/ɪk’strim/), appreciate(/ə’priʃɪet/), secret(/’siːkrɪt/), previous. 但也有例外,如zero(/’zɪro/), hero(/’hɪro/), serious(/’sɪrɪəs/).

(2)/ɛ/

重读闭音节,如set, bed, ten, pen, desk, yes, egg, left.
其他,如enemy(/’ɛnəmi/), eleven(/ɪ’lɛvn/), message(/’mɛsɪdʒ/), letter, generate(/’dʒɛnəret/), pebble(/’pɛbl/, 卵石).

(3)/ə/

名词或形容词后缀-ent,如abhorrent, accent, accident, apparent, benevolent, cogent, confident, consent, consequent(/’kɑnsəkwənt/).
非重读音节,如hundred, student, open, weekend, children, problem, prosperous.

(4)/ɪ/

非重读音节,如decide, result, chicken, pocket, restore(/rɪ’stɔr/, excuse(/ɪk’skjʊs/).
其他,如pretty(/’prɪti/), begin(/bɪ’ɡɪn/).

(5)/ /

词末不发音,如active, table, late, wife, store.

4.3 I i

(1)/aɪ/

重读开音节

如bicycle, Friday, private, drive, ice, line, wife, library.(以-辅音+le结尾的双音节词,前面的i所在音节是绝对开音节,发/aɪ/,如idle, title, bible, rifle.)

i+nd/ld/gh/gn,发/aɪ/

ind, 如behind(bɪ’haɪnd), blind, find, kind, mind. 但有例外,如vindicate(/’vɪndɪket/), wind, window.
ild, 如child, mild, wild. 但有例外,发bewilder(/bɪ’wɪldɚ/, 使迷惑), build(/bɪld/), children(/’tʃɪldrən/).
i+gh,gh不发音,如right, bright, light, fight, sign. 值得注意的是,weight(/wet/, ei发/e/), neighbour.
i+gn(以gn开头或者结尾的词,g不发音),如design, sign, consign, resign(/rɪ’zaɪn/, 辞职).

以-ile/-ite/-ise/-ize/-wise结尾的词,i发/ai/

-ile, 如while, smile, reconcile, crocodile(鳄鱼).
-ite,如excite, finite, satellite(/’sætəlaɪt/), appetite, expedite, invite, polite, quite, spite, unite, white, write. 但有例外,如infinite(/’ɪnfɪnət/), opposite(/’ɒpəzət/), requisite(/’rɛkwəzɪt/), favourite(/’fevərɪt/).
-ise,如exercise(/’ɛksɚsaɪz/), advise, apologise, arise, authorise, characterise, despise, disguise(/dɪs’ɡaɪz/), exercise, wise, likewise, surmise, surprise, sympathise. 但有例外,如promise(/‘prɑmɪs/), praise(/prez/), noise(/nɔɪz/).
-ize,如seize, size, moralize.

(2)/ɪ/

重读闭音节,如big, city, dish, kid, skip, rich, pick, fist, history. 还有animal(/’ænɪml/).

(3)/iː/

以-ique结尾的词,如antique, technique, unique, comique, Belgique(/bel’ʒi:k/, 比利时). 

(4)/ə/

holiday, beautiful, family, infinite(/’ɪnfɪnət/), opposite(/’ɒpəzət/).

4.4 O o

(1)/əʊ/

重读开音节

如go, no, home, lode, host, cold, note, okay, old, progress, moment, notice, ocean. 但也有例外,如office(/’ɒfɪs/), honest(/’ɒnɪst/).

o+st/ld,发/əʊ=o/

ost,如most, cost, post, utmost. 但accost(/ə’kɒst/,勾引), prognostics(/prɒg’nɒstɪk/, 预兆)按o在重读闭音节的读音/ɒ/.
old,如old(/əʊld/), told, cold, soldier, hold, fold, manifold, scold(责骂), bold.
oll,如wholly(/’həʊllɪ/), stroll(/strəʊl/, 散步). 但有例外,如collect(/kə‘lekt/), pollution(/pə’luʃən/); follow(/’fɒləʊ/), folly(/’fɒlɪ/).

以-o结尾的词

如no, ago, forego, also, photo, echo, embargo, piano. 但-o结尾的词的还发/uː/,如to, do, hitherto, too, two, undo, who.

(2)/ɒ/

重读闭音节,如lost, hot, mock, soft, clock, box, shop, sock.
其他,如office(/’ɒfɪs/), honest(/’ɒnɪst/),

(3)/ə/

非重读音节,如second, tonight, somebody(/’sʌmbədi/), welcome, today, tomorrow, together, control, collect.

(4)/uː/

以-o结尾的词有时发/uː/,如to, do, hitherto, too, two, undo, who.
其他,lose(/luːz/), whose, move, prove.

(5)/ʌ/

含o+m/n/v/th重读音节的词,如:
om, 如come, some, company, accompany, comfort. 但有例外,如common(/’kɒmən/).
on, 如honey, monkey, among, month, money, none, once. 但有例外,如only(/’əʊnlɪ/).
ov, 如love, cover, government, discovery. 但有例外,如improve(/ɪm’pruːv/).
oth,如other, another, nothing, mother, brother. 但也有例外,如cloth(/klɒθ/, 布).

4.5 U u

(1)/juː/

重读开音节,如university, refuse, unique, universe, huge.

以-ute/-ude结尾的词,发/juː/
-ute,动词后缀,如attribute(/ə’trɪbjuːt/), institute. 但有例外,如minute(/’mɪnɪt/).
-ude,名词后缀-tude,表示性质、状态、程度,如latitude, longitude, altitude, attitude.

(2)/ʌ/

重读闭音节,如but, struck(/strʌk/), trust, run, brush, bucket, duck, bubble, luck.

(3)/ʊ/

重读闭音节,如put, push, pull, full, bull.

(4)/ə/

非重读音节,如support, suggest, autumn(/’ɔːtəm/), difficult.

(5)/uː/

l/r/j+u的开音节,u发/uː/

lu, 如blue, include, resolute(/’rezəluːt/, 坚决的), seclude(使隔离), ablution(洗礼), conclude.
ru,如rule, true, rude, scruple(/’skruːp(ə)l/, 有顾忌), prudent(/’pruːd(ə)nt/, 谨慎的), intruder(/ɪn’truːdə/).
ju, 如June. 很少含ju开音节的词。

(6)/jʊ/

如popular, January(/’dʒænjʊ’ɛri/).

5. 其他规则

5.1 元音字母+l/m/n

字母l,m,n能够使左邻的元音字母发其“名称音”,举例如下:

元音+l, 如roll, child, wild, hold, sold, volt, folk, roll.
元音+m, 如climb, chamber, comb.
元音+n, 如danger, change, arrange, kind, pint, ninth, only.


参考资料:

[1]百度文库《英语读音密码 讲义
[2]百度文库《英语单词拼读规则
[3]百度文库《英语音标发音规则
[4]博文《英语中“oo”的发音规则
[5]博文《元音字母a,e,i,o,u的发音规则
[6]博文《英语单词数码(全部)发音规则 ea
[7]百科词条:英语后缀

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