英语发音规则(整理版):辅音字母及其组合

辅音字母发音没那么多变,先解决辅音字母。辅音字母共21个,即b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z,本文整理各个辅音字母及其组合的发音规则。

1. B b

/b/ 通常情况下发/b/,如bike, bus, bag.
/ / 在有些bt字母组合的单词,b不发音,如debt, doubt, subtle。但也有例外,如obtain, obtrude.

2. C c

/s/

在字母e, i, y前,如certain, receive, since, scarce, absence; city, circumstance, civility, society, civil; fancy, intimacy, secrecy, decency, legacy(据我所知,cy都在结尾).
注:字母组合sc在e, i, y前,c不发音,如scene, science, scythe. 有一个例外soccer(/’sɒkə/, 足球)。

/k/

在字母a, o, u前,如can, carriage, occasion, capable; course, consider, account, common; particular, excuse, occur, secure, accuse, cure. 但c+ae,c发/s/,如:Caen, Caelum.
以-c结尾的词,如public, domestic, music, emphatic, impolitic, laconic, panegyric, pedantic, philosophic, sarcastic, terrific, topic. 又如suc-cess, ac-cede, ac-cident.
接辅音,如cry, credit, across, uncle, incline, subject, defect, picture. 但字母组合ch发/tʃ/,/k/,/ʃ/,/h/,/ /,详情见后面的字母h。

/ /

字母组合sc在e, i, y前,c不发音,如science, scene, condescend, conscience, ascend, ascertain, conscious, discern, susceptibility, scythe.
字母组合ck, cq,c不发音,如back, struck, acknowledge, lucky, shock; acquaintance, acquire, acquit.

注:在cion, cien发/ʃ/,如suspicion(/sə’spɪʃən/), insufficient, deficient, sufficient(/sə’fɪʃnt/).

3. D d

几乎都发/d/但在字母组合dg, dj中,d不发音,如judge, knowledge, edge, lodge, pledge, fidget; adjust, adjourn(/ə’dʒɝn/, 推迟).

4. F f

总是发/f/, 如feel, father, family, often, few, left, friend, half, off, affection, perfect, offer, fortune.

5. G g

/dʒ/,在字母e,I,y之前。

在字母e之前,如general, marriage, gentlemen, carriage, advantage, change(以-ge结尾都是). 但也有例外,如get, together, eager, anger, longer, youngest.
在字母i之前,如imagine, regiment, eligible, imagine, agitate, apologise, original, lodging, intelligible, irreligious, obliging, prodigious. 但也有例外,如give, girl, begin, giddiness(/’gɪdɪnɪs/, 轻率的); hanging, changing(不以-ge结尾的动词ing形式).
在字母y之前,如apology, clergyman, energy, panegyric.

/g/

在字母a, o, u之前,如again, regard, elegant, gallery; good, ago, gown, agony, vigorous; guard, distinguish, figure, disgust, guess, language, vogue.
以-g结尾的词,如beg, hug, shrug. 但大多数情况不发音,如-ing(/ɪŋ/),nothing, morning; –ong, long, strong, among; -ang, hang, pang, rang, sang; young.
接辅音字母(gh比较复杂,详情见5.1),如great, agreeable, glad, degree, gratitude, agree, neglect, gratify, single. 但也有例外,如length, design.

/ /

以gn开头或者结尾的词,g不发音,如gnu(/nu/), gnome(/nəʊm/);design, sign, consign, resign(/rɪ’zaɪn/, 辞职).
字母组合gh有时不发音,如night, caught, sigh. 详情见5.1 gh.

5.1 gh[6]

/g/

以gh-开始的词,如ɡhost(/ɡost/, 幽灵). 电影恶灵骑士就叫Ghost Rider.

/f/

以-ough结尾的词,如enough, cough, rough, tough, laugh. 但也有例外,如though(/ðo/), thorough(/’θɜro/, 彻底的).

/ /

在i+gh中,gh不发音,如might, high, right, delight, night, slight, neighbour, fortnight, sight. eight, light.
在ought字母组合中,gh不发音,如thought, brought, ought, sought, bought.
以-ough结尾的词,有些发/f/,有些不发音,如though(/ðo/), thorough(/’θɜro/, 彻底的).

注:当gh不是字母组合,分属前后两音节,不适合上述规则,如dininghall/’daɪnɪŋhɔːl/.

6. H h

/h/

字母h通常情况下发/h/,如her, he, heart, happy, comprehend, habit, hair.

/ /

wh+a/i/e/u的词(wh+o, w不发音,如who),h不发音,如white, which, while, whilst, whip, whim, whimsical, whisper, whither; what, whatever; when, where, whether, whenever, wherever, whence, nowhere; whup.
以h+e/o开始的少数词,h不发音,如heir(/ɛr/,[法]继承人); honour, hour.
以exh-开始的词,h不发音,如exhaust(/ɪɡ’zɔst/), exhilarate, exhibit. 但有例外,如exhale(/ɛks’hel/,呼气).
以rh-开始的词,h不发音,如rheumatism(/’rumətɪzəm/, 风湿病), rhinoceros, rhyme.

6.1 ph

/f/,如photo, telephone, sphere, nephew, triumph, phaeton, philosophy, emphatic.

6.2 gh

gh发/g/, /f/, / /,详情见5.1。

6.3 sh

/ʃ/,如fresh, she, should, shall, wish, short, astonishment, ladyship, ashamed,share.

6.4 th[3]

/ð/

在代词、冠词、介词、连词或副词中
如within/wi’ðin/,without/wi’ðaut/,these/ði:z/,therefore/’ðeәfɔ:/,although/ɔ:lðәu/,those/ðәuz/,the/ðә/,thus/ðas/.但也有例外:through/θru:/,throughout/θru:’aut/.
以-er结尾的词
如altogether/ɔ:ltә’geðә/,farther/’faðә/, feather/’fe ðә/,whether/’we ðә/,either/’aiðә/,gather/’gæðә/.

/θ/

在数词(包括基数词和序数词)中
如three/θri:/,thirty/’θә:ti/,thirteen/’θә:’ti:n/,
third/ θә:d/,fourth/fɔ:θ/,fiftieth/’fiftiiθ/,thousand/’θauzәnd/,hundredth/’handrәdθ/.
以-th结尾的单词
如truth/tru:θ/,worth/wә:θ/,breath/breθ/,both/bәuθ/,cloth/klɔθ/,path/pa:θ/,wealth/welθ/,length/leŋθ/,strength/streŋθ/. 但也有特殊,如smooth/smu:ð/.
除上述单词外,一般位于词首的th读/θ/
如theatre/’θiәtә/,thick/θik/,thin/θin/,throat/θrәut/,theory/’θiәri/,thrust/θrast/,thread/θred/,thorough/’θarә/,Thursday/’θә:zdi/.

其他无规则可循的词分列如下:

maths/mæθs/,arithmetic/ә’riθmәtik/,clothing/klәuðiŋ/,clothes/klәuðz/,southern/’saðәn/,northern/’nɔ:ðәn/,worthy/’wә:ði/,author/’ɔ:θә/,sympathy/’simpәθi/.

注:复合词中,th的读音与在原词中的读音相同。如something/’samθiŋ/,anything/’eniθiŋ/,nothing/’naθiŋ/,within,without等。

6.5 ch[5]

/tʃ/

最常见的就是发/tʃ/,如China, which, such, each, reach, church, speech, teach, fetch, approach, vouch, cheese, peach, chicken, lunch, kitchen, chair, chimney, watch, cheese, peach, chicken, lunch, kitchen, chair, chimney, watch,arch(据我了解,以-ch结尾的词都发/tʃ/)
注:字母组合tch中t不发音,如:match, watch, wretch, catch, fetch, stretch, bewitch, sketch, pitch, hotchpotch, Scotch.

/k/

来源于希腊表示艺术、文学、神话、音乐、医学、宗教、科学领域的词可以理解成h不发音,如school, technology, stomach(复数为stomachs) ache, chemistry, scheme, Christian, Christmas, chrysanthemum(菊花), echo, chaos, chorus, choir, orchestra, psychiatrist.

/ʃ/

来自法语的词,如chef, moustache, champagne, chandelier, parachute, brochure, machine, crochet, Chicago, Michigan.

/h/

来自希伯来语Hebrew,challah(/’hɑːlə/, 白面包), chutzpah(/’hʊtspə/, 肆无忌惮), Chanukah(/’hɑ:nəkə/, 光明节).

/ /

不发音,只有一个词,yacht(/jɑt/, 游艇)。

7. J j

/dʒ/, 如just, subject, object, enjoy, prejudice, rejoice, injure, jealousy.

8. L l[11][12]

音标是一样的,但发音有两种,即light l(清晰的l,舌侧音)和dark l(模糊的l,舌尖音)。

light l

以l-开始的词,如light, lamb, lake, let, lever, life, live, love.
以l+元音的词,如alive, selling, elephant, lollipop.

dark l

以-l结尾的词,如girl, ball, full, sell, spill,  all, pull, ill, bicycle, sale(结尾e不发音).
以l+辅音的词, 如world, old,could, would, should, felt, told, himself.

/ /

在al+辅音的词,l少数情况不发音,如talk, walk, calm, balm, fall(可视为第一个l不发音,第二个发音).

注:还有一个词这两种情况都含有的,如illegal, lull(light + dark).

9. K k

/k/ 通常情况下发/k/,如think, make, speak, struck, remark.
/ / 以kn-开头的词,k不发音,如know, knight, knowledge, knees, unknown. 

10. M m

/m/ 通常情况下发/m/,如my, man, marry, determine, amiable, handsome.
/ / 以mn-开头的词,m不发音,如mnemonic(记忆力的).
    以-mn结尾的词,n不发音,如solemn(庄严的), condemn(谴责).

11. N n[7]

/n/

通常情况下发/n/,以下情况也发/n/:
n属于前缀一部分时,即使n在/k/,/g/前,也不发/ŋ/,而是发/n/,如:unkind,uncommon, uncountable,unclean,unclear,uncover,uncomfortable,unconditional,income,incomplete.
n在ge前,若g不发/g/而发/dʒ/,则n不发/ŋ/而是/n/,如change,orange,arrange,anger,dangerous, strange.

/ŋ/

在音素/k/,/g/前,如think,thank,English,language,ankle,uncle,anxious, handkerchief, conquer. 但前缀除外,如inquire(/ɪn’kwaɪr/).
以-ng结尾
,如-ing(/ɪŋ/),nothing, morning, bring, ring; -ong, long, strong, among; -ang, hang, pang, rang, sang; young.

/ /

以-mn结尾的词,n不发音,如autumn,column, solemn(/’sɑləm/, 庄严的), condemn(/kən’dɛm/, 谴责)

12. P p

/p/ 通常情况下发/p/,如speak, spite, appearance, pride, particular, surprise.
/ / 以pn-开头的词,p不发音,如pneumonia(肺炎), pneumothorax(气胸).
    以ps-开头的词,p不发音,如psychology, psychiatrist, psalm(诗篇).

13. Q q

/k/, 如Iraq, inquire, quest, quite, quarrel, acquaint.(词几乎以qu出现,读/kw/

14. R r[13]

r发两个音,元音字母前发辅音/r/,元音字母后发元音/ɝ,ɚ/。/ɝ/与/ɚ/区别,见维基百科《元音的儿化现象》,摘抄部分如下:

重音元音/ɝ/:assert, mirth, work, turkey, myrtle.
弱化元音/ɚ/:apparatus, dinner, editor, measure.

/r/

元音字母前发/r/,如speak, spite, appearance, pride, surprise.
双写rr,发/r/,r与前面的元音字母(不可能是辅音字母)不能构成r音节,如error(/’ɛrɚ/), arrange, arrear, arrest, arrive, borrow, carry, hurry, correct, correspond. 注:动词过去式双写rr不算,如deferred.
重读元音+r+非重读元音(理解成不属于同一音节,不同于re音节),r发/r/,如direct(/daɪˈrɛkt/), apparent, ceremony, different, interference, parent, zero, during, story, inspiring.

14.1 元音字母+re[16]

元音字母+re,即are,ere,ire,ore,ure,也称re音节。re音节很少出现在非重读音节,ure在非重读音节中发/jɚ/,/ɚ/.

re音节在重读音节读音

are,发/ɛr=ɛɚ/,如aware, bare, care, compare, dare, declare, fare, prepare, share, spare, stare, threadbare, welfare. 但are(/ɑr/)例外。
ere,发/ɪr=ɪɚ/,如here, adhere, mere, sphere, severe, sincere.
     发/ɛr=ɛɚ/,如ere, there, were, where. 特例were(/wɚ/).
ire,发/aɪɚ/,如admire, desire, entire, fair, fire, hire, inquire, inspire, tire, transpire.
ore,发/ɔr=ɔɚ/,如more, before, bore, explore, forego, foresee, score, sore, store, wore.
ure,发/jʊr=jʊɚ/,如pure, cure, inure, procure.
     发/ʊr=ʊɚ/, 如sure(/ʃʊr/), allure(/əˈlʊr/,诱惑), endure.

注:ure在非重读音节中发/ɚ/,如picture, pleasure, injure(/’ɪndʒɚ/). 还发/jɚ/,如failure(/’feljɚ/), figure(/’fɪɡjɚ/),verdure(/’vɝdjɚ/, 碧绿).

14.2 元音字母+r[14]

元音字母+r,即ar, er, ir, or, ur,属于r音节(还包括元音字母组合+r,即air, ear, eer, eir, oar, oor, our)。发音时,先判断重读还是非重读音节,关于重读与非重读音节,可参考之前博文《英语中开/闭音节和重/非重读》。r音节在非重读音节通常读/ɚ/

(1)ar

非重读音节,发/ɚ/,如forward(/’fɔrwɚd/), afterward, backward, dollar.
重读音节,音[w]+ar,发/ɔː/,/ɔr=ɔɚ/,如warm, worker, worse, ward. 
重读音节,通常发/ɑr=ɑɚ/,如are, tar, heart, car, farm, dark, sharpener.
oar,发/ɔː/,/ɔr=ɔɚ/,如roar, board, coarseness.

ear发音比较复杂,可发/ɪr=ɪɚ/,/ɛr=ɛɚ/,/ɝ/

以-ear结尾的词,发/ɪr=ɪɚ/,如dear, hear, near, appear, fear, year, clear, arrear, overhear, reappear. 但也有例外,如bear(/bɛr/), wear(/wɛr/), tear(/tɛr/).
以-ear结尾的词,发/ɛr=ɛɚ/,如bear, wear, pear, tear, swear.
发/ɝ/,如heard, early, earnest, heartily, learn, earl, earthly, search.

注:heart(/hɑrt/)比较特殊。

(2)or

非重读音节,发/ɚ/,如forget(/fɚ’ɡɛt/), .
重读音节,音[w]+or,发/ɝ/,如world, word, work, worth, worse, worst. 但有例外,如worn(/wɔrn/).
重读音节,通常发/ɔr=ɔɚ/,如forty(/’fɔrti/), morning, short, worn.
oor,发/ɔː/,/ɔr=ɔɚ/,如door, floor. 但有例外,如poor(/pʊr/).

(3)er,ir,ur

重读音节,读/ɝ/,如herself, certain, perfect; girl, dirt, first, stir, shirt, circumstance; hurt, turn, return, curtain, fur, further, Thursday, occur.
非重读音节,读/ɚ/,如her, sister, manner; surprise.

但也有例外,如iron(/’aɪɚn/, 熨斗)。

元音+er,ir,ur

air,发/ɛr=ɛɚ/,如air, hair, chair, pair, repair, stair, fair, affair.
eer,发/ɪə,ɪr/,如pioneer, deer, beer, cheer.
eir,发/ɛr=ɛɚ/,如their(/ðɛr/), heir(/ɛr/,[法]继承人).

our发音比较复杂,可发/aʊə=aʊɚ/,/ɔr=ɔɚ/,/ɝ/,搜了很久,都没找到有信服的our读音规则Sad smile

/aʊə=aʊɚ/,如our,ourself, hour(h不发音).
/ɔː,ɔr/,如your, four, pour, course, intercourse, court, source.
/ɝ/,如journey(/’dʒɝni/), journal, courteous, nourish, courage.
/ɚ/,honour, behaviour, endeavour,favour, humour, neighbour, humour, colour, candour, parlour, labour, harbour.(以-our结尾的?)

15. S s

15.1 变复数发音/s/与/z/

名词变复数,s的读音为/s/或/z/,百度文库《字母s的发音规则》真是讲到本质上了,摘抄如下:

为了顺口,s发/s/和/z/两个音(弱/强,无声/有声,清/浊辅音,不响亮/响亮)。为了追求发音的顺口和协调,让清辅音与清辅音连在一起(即不响亮与不响亮,如/ps/, /ts/, /ks/, /fs/),让响亮音与响亮音在一起(即元音和浊辅音,如/bz/, /dz/, /mz/, /nz/, /rz/, /az/)。

以/s/, /z/, sh, ch结尾的词(如bus, fox, dish, watch),这些词的结尾音与/s/发音一样或者特别接近,如果在这些词后面再加s表达复数的话,那么单词结尾的发音将很困难。为了解决这难题,在两个s音塞个e(如buses, foxes, dishes, watches),并且让e发/i/的音。既然-es的e发元音/i/,响音,很自然s发/z/的音。综述,有如下规则:

s在清辅音(不响亮音)后发/s/
s在浊辅音或元音(响亮音)后发/z/

15.2 sh

/ʃ/ 如fresh, she, should, shall, wish, short, astonishment, ladyship, ashamed,share.

15.3 -sion

以元音+sion结尾的词,发/ʒ(ə)n/,如occasion, conclusion, persuasion, allusion, confusion, exclusion, intrusion.
以辅音+sion结尾的词,发/ʃən/,如expression, apprehension, compassion, possession, commission, impression, confession, permission, admission.

15.4 -sure

以元音+sure结尾的词,发/ʒɚ/,如pleasure(/ˈplɛʒɚ/), leisure, composure, measure, closure, treasure, discomposure, displeasure.
以辅音+sure结尾的词,发/ʃʊr/,如sure, assure(/ə’ʃʊr/), assured, censure, ensure.

16. T t

/t/

通常情况下发/t/,以-ture结尾的词,发/tʃɚ/,如nature, future, creature, rapture, venture, mixture, picture, conjecture, departure.

/ /

字母组合tch中t不发音,如:match(/mætʃ/), watch, wretch, catch, fetch, stretch, bewitch, sketch, pitch, hotchpotch, Scotch. 详情见6.5 ch.
字母组合st中,t有时不发音,如listen, whistle, bristle.

17. V v

/v/ 如have, love, believe, endeavour, perceive, provoke, grieve(悲痛).

18. W w

w是半元音,当与元音组合(aw, ew, ow)时,尤为复杂。

/w/

除了以下情况(wh+o, wr-, 元音字母+w),几乎都发/w/。如will, bewail, between, away, woman, forward, aware, twelve.

/ /

字母组合wh在o前,w不发音,如who, whom, whole, whose, wholly.
以wr-开始的词,w不发音,如write, wrote, wretch, wrong, wraith, wreath, wrap.
其他,answer(/’ænsɚ/), two(/tu/)

18.1 aw,ew,ow

据我了解,不存在包含iw, uw的词,这样子就好理解了,元音字母+w,不发/w/。

(1)aw

字母组合aw,发/ɔː/,如saw, awkward, draw, awe, awful, law. 但有例外(理解成不是一在同一音节或者合成词),如await, away, aware, awake, awoke.

(2)ew

/uː/

在j,l,r,s+ew词中,发/uː/,如jewel(/’dʒuːəl/); flew(fly过去式); drew, threw, grew, withdrew, shrewish(/’ʃruːɪʃ/); sewage, sewer. 但有例外,如sew(/so/, 缝合).

/juː/

其他情况,发/juː/,如few, knew, new, view, renewal, nephew, steward. 少有的例外,如shew(/ʃəʊ/, 展出,同show).

注:合成词不符合上述规则,如likewise, rewarded, farewell, somewhat.

(3)ow[8]

字母组合ow,发/əʊ/,/aʊ/,/ɒ/,在网上找了很久,都没找到有信服的规则。如果您有,希望您能与我分享,谢谢!

/əʊ/

发字母O的音,如arrow, below, blow, borrow, bow(for shooting arrows), bowl, crow, elbow, fellow, flow, follow, grow, grown, growth, know, low, narrow, owe, own, row(line), shadow, show, slow, snow, throw, tomorrow, tow, window, yellow.

/aʊ/

allow, bow(inclination), brow, brown, browse, clown, cow, coward, crowd, crown, down, drown, eyebrow, flower, frown, how, now, owl, powder, power, row(quarrel), shower, towel, tower, town, vowel.

/ɒ/

极少情况发/ɒ/,如knowledge(/ˈnɒlɪdʒ/), knowledgeable(/ˈnɒlɪdʒəbəl/).

注:合成词不符合上述规则,如toward.

19. X x[4] 

/ks/

在词尾,如six, fix, sex, tax, mix, vex. 但有例外:beaux(/boz/花花公子,法语词,beau的复数)
x+辅音,如mixture,excuse,export,exclude,explain, explore
x+元音,并且在非重读音节,如exercise, experience, exit, exhibition.

/gz/

x+元音,并且在重读音节,如executive(/ɪg’zɛkjətɪv/), exact, exist, exam, exaggerate.

/z/

以x-开头的词,这类词很少。如xylitol(/’zaɪlɪtɒl/, 木糖醇), xylophone(木琴),xanadu(/’zænədju:/,世外桃园), xanthous(黄色人种的), xebec(小型三桅船).

注:还有这样的发音,complexion(/kəm’plɛkʃən/,肤色).

20. Y y

/j/

以j-开始的词,如you, young, yet, year, yesterday, beyond, youth, yield, yard, yawn.

/aɪ/

动词后缀-ify(转为turn into, 变为make/become),如justify, gratify, mortify, signify, testify, beautify, diversify, simplify.
以-y结尾的单音节单词,如my, cry, try, why, by, fly, buy, shy, sly.
除此之外,还有dying, eye, dye, occupy, style, reply, supply, apply, comply, gratify, testify, defy.

/i/

字母组合ey发/i/,如monkey, curtsey, money, journey, attorney, hackney. 见下方。
名词后缀-(i)ty(表示性质、状态、程度),如party, opportunity, civility, pretty, beauty, vanity, curiosity.
副词后缀ly,如only, really, certainly, hardly, scarcely, immediately, perfectly, likely, exactly, merely, highly, particularly, wholly.
除此之外,还有anything, everything, marry, fancy, syllable, symptom, carry, clergyman, everyone, hurry, study, accompany, family, stuffy.

20.1 ay,ey,oy

据我了解,不存在包含iy的词,包含uy的词,只有buy(/baɪ/)。这样子就好理解了,元音字母+w,就剩下ay, ey, oy.

(1)ay

字母组合ay只发/eɪ/,如pray, betray, delay, pay, day, betray, delay, play, allay.

(2)ey

/eɪ/

如they, convey, survey, obey, prey.

/i/

monkey, curtsey, money, journey, attorney, hackney.

注:有例外,如eye(/aɪ/),属于单音节。

(3)oy

字母组合oy只发/ɔɪ/, 如employ, joy, boy, destroy, employ, unalloyed.

21. Z z

/z/ 如amaze, puzzle, seize, authorize, moralize, size, dozen, glaze.

 

附:英语字母发音表和英语国际音标表[9]

英语字母发音表

A a [ei]         B b [bi:]         C c [si:]          D d [di:]
E e [i:]         F f [ef]          G g [d3i:]         H h [eit∫]
I i [ai]         J j [dʒeɪ]         K k [kei]          L l [el]
M m [em]         N n [en]          O o [əu]           P p [pi:]
Q q [kju:]       R r [a:]          S s [es]           T t [ti:]
U u [ju:]        V v [vi:]         W w [‘dʌblju:]     X x [eks]
Y y [wai]        Z z [zi:][zed]

单元音

前元音  [i:]  [i]   [e]   [æ]
中元音  [ə:]  [ə]
后元音  [u:]  [u]   [כ]  [כ:]   [a:]  [۸] 
双元音  [ei]  [ai]  [כi]  [əu]  [au]  [iə]  [εə]  [uə]

辅音

爆破音 [p]   [b]   [t]   [d]   [k]   [g]
鼻  音 [m]   [n]  [ŋ]
摩擦音 [f]  [v]   [θ]  [ð]   [s]   [z]   [∫]   [з]   [r]   [h]
爆破音 [t∫] [dз] [ts]  [dz]  [tr]  [dr]
半元音 [w]  [j]
舌元音 [l] 

 

参考资料:
[1]博文:<英语字母发音规律详解>:附赠音节划分口诀
[2]百度文库《英语单词拼读规则
[3]字母组合th的读音规则总结
[4]博文《辅音字母X的发音: /ks/,/gz/或/z/
[5]Youtube视频《written ch = /t͡ʃ, k, ʃ, h, silent/
[6]百度文库《gh和ph的发音
[7]百度文库《n发音规则
[8]Pronunciation exercises: “ow”
[9]英语字母发音表和国际音标表
[10]天涯博文《-ty,-ity:体与一体
[11]音标L的发音规则
[12]视频Perfect Your Pronunciation – Light /l/ & Dark /l/
[13]视频Lesson 5a – R – English Pronunciation
[14]百度文库《r音节
[15]百度文库《英式和美式英语从书写系统到习惯、发音比较详述的对比资料
[16]百度百科:re音节

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