了解欧元硬币图案:德国、法国、荷兰

某夜无聊将手头的硬币翻出去认真看了下,发现挺有意思的,于是就想了解更多关于欧元硬币图案的信息。本文整理了本人最感兴趣的3个国家(德国、法国、荷兰)欧元货币图案含义。

1. 概述

硬币的图案往往是关键人物或者关键建筑(多半是著名旅游景点),反映了一段历史。通过维基百科可以很方便获取这些信息,蛮有意思的。

欧元硬币正面是统一的,参考维基百科词条:Euro coins

All coins have a common reverse side showing how much the coin is worth, with a design by Belgian designer Luc Luycx.[11] The design of the €0.01, €0.02, and €0.05 coins shows Europe’s place in the world as a whole.[11] The €0.10 coins and above show either the 15 countries that were the European Union in 2002, or, if minted after 2007, the whole European continent.[11] Coins from Italy, San Marino, the Vatican, Austria and Portugal show the new design if minted 2008 or later.[11] The coins symbolise the unity of the EU.[13]

找到了一张很详细的图片,图片来自博文《各国欧元硬币图案》:

euro_coins

图1:德国、法国、荷兰欧元硬币图案

2. 德国

德国欧元货币,看英文维基百科German euro coins,一目了然。

(1)橡树支oak twig—— 国树

在德意志帝国(直到第三帝国),继椴树之后,橡树被定为国树。

The oak is a common symbol of strength and endurance and has been chosen as the national tree of many countries, including Germany, Serbia, Cyprus (Golden Oak), England, Estonia, France,Germany, Moldova, Romania, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the United States, Wales, Galicia and Bulgaria. It is also used for regional and state symbols, political use. For more information, please click to Wikipedia oak.

(2)勃兰登堡门 —— 分裂与统一

勃兰登堡门(Brandenburg Gate)是位于德国首都柏林新古典主义风格建筑,由普鲁士国王腓特烈·威廉二世下令于1788年至1791年间建造,以纪念普鲁士七年战争取得的胜利。

第二次世界大战德国战败后,分裂为东德和西德,柏林亦划分为东柏林和西柏林,分属东德和西德管辖,勃兰登堡门位于东柏林和西柏林的分界线上,也是冷战时期华沙公约组织国家和北大西洋公约组织国家之间的分界线,因此它曾经成为德国分裂、欧洲分裂和冷战的象征。1990年两德统一后,勃兰登堡门又成为了德国重新统一和欧洲重新统一的象征。

(3)联邦鹰federal eagle —— 象征主权

German Eagle on back of German 1 euro coinGerman Eagle on back of German 2 euro coin

图1 德国国徽、1欧背面、2欧背面

摘抄相关维基百科词条原文如下:

The Federal Republic of Germany adopted the Weimar eagle as its symbol in 1950. Since then it has been known as the Bundesadler (“federal eagle”).

Since the accession in 1990 of the states that used to form the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Eagle has been the state symbol of the reunified Germany.

Official depictions of the eagle can be found not only in the federal coat of arms but also on the federal institutions flag, the standard of the President of Germany and official seals. These are designs by various artists of the Weimar period and differ primarily in the shape and position of the wings. A large and rather plump version of the eagle decorates the chamber of the Bundestag, the German parliament; it is sometimes called Fette Henne (“Fat Hen”), with a similar representation found on the German Euro coin.

2. 法国

法国欧元货币, French euro coins

(1)玛丽安娜头像 —— 法兰西共和国的象征

Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, an allegory of liberty and reason, and a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty. (自由与理性)

The Gallic rooster (French: le coq gaulois) is an unofficial national symbolof France as a nation, as opposed to Marianne representing France as a State, and its values: the Republic.

Other heraldic animal officially used by the French nation includes the French Imperial Eagle, symbol of the First and Second French Empire under Napoleon I and Napoleon III.

(2)播种人

The sower, a theme carried over from the former franc.

(3)树

A stylised tree contained in a hexagon with the motto Liberté Egalité Fraternité (自由、平等、博愛,法国国家格言)

3. 荷兰

荷兰欧元货币,维基百科词条:Dutch euro coins

(1)First series (1999-2013): Queen Beatrix 贝娅特丽克丝

Portrait of Queen Beatrix, her title around the edge.
Portrait of Queen Beatrix, her title around the edge.
Half portrait of Queen Beatrix, her title vertically shown as in the former guilder.

5 cent euro coin Netherlands series1.gif50 cent euro coin Netherlands series1.gif2 euro coin Netherlands, first series.gif

(2)Second series (2014-present): King Willem Alexander 威廉-亚历山大

Portrait of King William-Alexander, his title vertical across the coins center.
Portrait of King William-Alexander, his title vertical across the coins center.
Portrait of King William-Alexander, his title shown vertical on the right side.

5 cent coin Netherlands series2.gif50 cent coin Netherlands series2.gif2 euro coin Netherlands series2.gif

4. 2欧纪念币

2欧元纪念币是欧元区国家从2004年开始为纪念特定事件而铸造的硬币,主要纪念历史事件或值得关注的时事。详情见维基百科词条:€2 commemorative coins

我手头恰好有一枚“欧元流通十周年”纪念币,长成这样:

维基百科介绍如下:

Ten years of Economic and Monetary Union(EMU) and the birth of the euro

Description: The centre of the coin shows a stylised human figure whose left arm is prolonged by the euro symbol. The initials ΓΣ of the sculptor appear below the euro symbol. The name(s) of the issuing country in the national language(s) appear(s) at the top, while the indication 1999–2009 and the acronym EMU translated into the national language(s) appear at the bottom. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.

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